Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was a British mathematician who was outstanding in areas like theoretical computing, cryptanalysis or artificial intelligence and who is widely considered to be the father of computer science.
Some of his main contributions to theoretical computing and artificial intelligence were the Turing machine, the universalcomputability or the Turing test. He was the first scientific who used computers applied to mathematics.
Along World War II he worked at Bletchley Park, at the British Intelligence Service cryptographic facility. For a while he directed Hut 8, the section in charge of Germans navy cryptanalysis where he developed several code breaking techniques, including "the bombe", an electromechanical machine which could break Enigma's code. This machine codified German's army messages, and breaking its codification was vital for the development of Atlantic's Battle.
Later he was pursued by the British government due to his homosexuality. To avoid prison, Turing accepted treatment with hormones (strogen), a practice used by that time. Turing finally committed suicide on 1954 eating a apple with cyanide. On 10 September 2009, due to social pressure and following internet campaign, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an official public apology for the way in which Turing was treated after the war.
This year 2012, coinciding with the centenary of his birth, it is celebrated the Turing year